History and Innovations

How Applied Neuroscience, Inc. Has Changed the Face of EEG Biofeedback

1994 –  First to Introduce and Implement a Normative Database to EEG Biofeedback (Lexicor).  The goal was to use Z Scores from Norms for Assessment, Biofeedback Protocol Development & Evaluation of Treatment efficacy following Biofeedback.

2000 –   First to publish how to compute LORETA Z scores in real-time for Neurofeedback.

2002 –  First to Produce Commercial Software that Integrates Conventional EEG with QEEG on the Same Screen at the Same Time.

2004 –  First to Implement Live Z Scores (real-time) for EEG Biofeedback.

2005 –  First to Implement LORETA Source Correlations.

2008 –  First to Implement 19 Channel EEG Z Score Biofeedback.

  • First to Implement Surface EEG Phase Shift & Phase Lock measures
  • First to Implement Cross-Frequency Phase Lock & Phase Shift Duration.
  • First to Implement LORETA Z Score Biofeedback.

2009 –  First to Implement Seamless Integration of QEEG Assessment and Biofeedback

  • First to Implement Surface Laplacian EEG Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement Average Reference EEG Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement a Symptom Check List to produce Biofeedback protocols of
    the Surface EEG.

2010 –  First to Implement a Symptom Check List with LORETA Z score Biofeedback.

2011 –  First to implement LORETA Coherence and Phase Z Score Biofeedback

2012 –  First to Implement LORETA Coherence and Phase Difference in Biofeedback.

  • First to Produce the “Handbook of QEEG and EEG Biofeedback” a Textbook for Students and Professionals.

2013 –  First to Implement LORETA Z Scores of Phase Lock & Phase Shift to  Biofeedback.

  • First to Implement a Real-Time 3D Rendered MRI volume & Nodes (Brodmann Areas) and Connections (Coherence, Phase and Phase Reset) between Nodes for Assessment and Biofeedback. The new “BrainSurfer”

2014 –  First to Implement LORETA Phase Shift and Phase Lock Duration Z Scores for Assessment with Color Coded Contour Maps

  • First to Implement an Automatic Clinical Report Writer that is Generated Locally to Empower Individual Clinicians, thus Removing the need for an External QEEG Report Services.

2015 –  First to Implement NeuroLink to allow patients/clients to assess symptom severity and seamlessly select a protocol to reinforce stability in dysregulated brain networks linked to the symptoms

  • First to implement a Neural Network Injury Index of patients/clients following a concussion and TBI
  • First to integrate a Chinese amplifier (Fistar SNS) for real-time EEG Z score Biofeedback
  • First to implement Effective Connectivity or measures of information flow between all combinations of 19 EEG channels using the Phase Slope Inde (PSI) for assessment
  • First to implement Effective Connectivity or measures of information flow between all combinations of 88 Brodmann Areas using LORETA with the Phase Slope Index (PSI) for assessment

2016 –   First to compute Z scores for swLORETA with 12,270 voxels and a real MRI to replace the Key Institute LORETA  and sLORETA

  • First to implement a “Concussion Index” to track brain network changes over time and following treatment
  • First to implement the BrainSurfer Viewer to allow one to explore 3-Dimensional Z score connectivity

2017 –     First to implement the “Brain Function Index” using functional and effective connectivity Z score metrics with sLORETA to track changes in brain networks in the direction of optimal functioning

  • First to implement Phase/Amplitude Coupling with Z scores for surface and between Brodmann areas
  • First to implement Cross-Frequency Coherence with Z scores

2018 –  First to implement EEG Biofeedback (Neurofeedback) using Cross-Frequency Coherence and Cross-Frequency Phase-Amplitude Coupling.

  • First to use swLORETA (Soler et all, 2007) with 12,700 MRI voxels for EEG Neurofeedback protocol design using the new NeuroNavigator in NeuroGuide.
  • First to design and prepare for a future Cerebellum EEG Neurofeedback protocol.

2019-    First to Include Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Fiber Connectivity with Both Raw Scores and Z Scores to Help Neurofeedback Protocol Development and to Evaluate Pre vs Post treatment Brain Changes

  • First to implement Cerebellum, Red Nucleus, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus and Habenula for symptom assessment
  • First to implement Cerebellum, Red Nucleus, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus and Habenula for EEG Neurofeedback protocol design
  • First to implement the 2-Dimensional Connectome with swLORETA for connectivity assessment with Z scores and raw scores
  • First to implement real-time swLORETA Neuronavigation

2020-    First to Develop Enhanced Symptom Linkage to Brain Networks using the swLORETA Neuronavigator with NeuroLink Pro and an iPhone and Android app

  • First to implement platform independent (PC, IOS, Tablets, Android, iPhone) symptom assessment to evaluate treatment progress
Read Dr. Thatcher’s Chapter: “Neurofeedback’s First 50 Years: My Story”