History and Innovations

How Applied Neuroscience, Inc. Has Advanced EEG Neuroscience
and Changed the Face of EEG Biofeedback


  • First to Introduce and Implement a Normative Database to EEG Biofeedback (Lexicor).  The goal was to use Z Scores from Norms for Assessment, Biofeedback Protocol Development & Evaluation of Treatment efficacy following Biofeedback.


  • First to publish how to compute LORETA Z scores in real-time for Neurofeedback.


  • First to Produce Commercial Software that Integrates Conventional EEG with QEEG on the Same Screen at the Same Time.


  • First to Implement Live Z Scores (real-time) for EEG Biofeedback.


  • First to Implement LORETA Source Correlations.


  • First to Implement 19 Channel EEG Z Score Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement Surface EEG Phase Shift & Phase Lock measures
  • First to Implement Cross-Frequency Phase Lock & Phase Shift Duration.
  • First to Implement LORETA Z Score Biofeedback.


  • First to Implement Seamless Integration of QEEG Assessment and Biofeedback
  • First to Implement Surface Laplacian EEG Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement Average Reference EEG Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement a Symptom Check List to produce Biofeedback protocols of
    the Surface EEG.


  • First to Implement a Symptom Check List with LORETA Z score Biofeedback.


  • First to implement LORETA Coherence and Phase Z Score Biofeedback


  • First to Implement LORETA Coherence and Phase Difference in Biofeedback.
  • First to Produce the “Handbook of QEEG and EEG Biofeedback” a Textbook for Students and Professionals.


  • First to Implement LORETA Z Scores of Phase Lock & Phase Shift to  Biofeedback.
  • First to Implement a Real-Time 3D Rendered MRI volume & Nodes (Brodmann Areas) and Connections (Coherence, Phase and Phase Reset) between Nodes for Assessment and Biofeedback. The new “BrainSurfer”


  • First to Implement LORETA Phase Shift and Phase Lock Duration Z Scores for Assessment with Color Coded Contour Maps
  • First to Implement an Automatic Clinical Report Writer that is Generated Locally to Empower Individual Clinicians, thus Removing the need for an External QEEG Report Services.


  • First to Implement NeuroLink to allow patients/clients to assess symptom severity and seamlessly select a protocol to reinforce stability in dysregulated brain networks linked to the symptoms
  • First to implement a Neural Network Injury Index of patients/clients following a concussion and TBI
  • First to integrate a Chinese amplifier (Fistar SNS) for real-time EEG Z score Biofeedback
  • First to implement Effective Connectivity or measures of information flow between all combinations of 19 EEG channels using the Phase Slope Inde (PSI) for assessment
  • First to implement Effective Connectivity or measures of information flow between all combinations of 88 Brodmann Areas using LORETA with the Phase Slope Index (PSI) for assessment


  • First to compute Z scores for swLORETA with 12,270 voxels and a real MRI to replace the Key Institute LORETA  and sLORETA
  • First to implement a “Concussion Index” to track brain network changes over time and following treatment
  • First to implement the BrainSurfer Viewer to allow one to explore 3-Dimensional Z score connectivity


  • First to implement the “Brain Function Index” using functional and effective connectivity Z score metrics with sLORETA to track changes in brain networks in the direction of optimal functioning
  • First to implement Phase/Amplitude Coupling with Z scores for surface and between Brodmann areas
  • First to implement Cross-Frequency Coherence with Z scores


  • First to implement EEG Biofeedback (Neurofeedback) using Cross-Frequency Coherence and Cross-Frequency Phase-Amplitude Coupling.
  • First to use swLORETA (Soler et all, 2007) with 12,700 MRI voxels for EEG Neurofeedback protocol design using the new NeuroNavigator in NeuroGuide.
  • First to design and prepare for a future Cerebellum EEG Neurofeedback protocol.


  • First to Include Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Fiber Connectivity with Both Raw Scores and Z Scores to Help Neurofeedback Protocol Development and to Evaluate Pre vs Post treatment Brain Changes
  • First to implement Cerebellum, Red Nucleus, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus and Habenula for symptom assessment
  • First to implement Cerebellum, Red Nucleus, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus and Habenula for EEG Neurofeedback protocol design
  • First to implement the 2-Dimensional Connectome with swLORETA for connectivity assessment with Z scores and raw scores
  • First to implement real-time swLORETA NeuroNavigation


  • First to Develop Enhanced Symptom Linkage to Brain Networks using the swLORETA NeuroNavigator with NeuroLink Pro and an iPhone and Android app
  • First to implement platform independent (PC, IOS, Tablets, Android, iPhone) symptom assessment to evaluate treatment progress
  • First to develop Cross-Frequency Phase-Amplitude Coupling and Cross-Frequency Power Correlation Z scores
  • First to develop 3-dimensional network analyzes and Z scores that include the Cerebellum, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus, Red Nucleus, Nu. Accumbens and the Habenula.


  • First to develop a powerful 3D Statistics option (NaviStat) with 12,400 voxels and 130 Brodmann areas and regions of interest that includes Functional Connectivity (Coherence, Lagged Coherence, and Phase Differences) and Effective Connectivity (Information Flow).


  • First to implement Phase Shift and Phase Lock duration to a 12,400 voxel Neuroimaging to the NeuroNavigator.
  • First to develop surface EEG Z score Cross-Frequency Neurofeedback
  • First to implement EEG Neurofeedback of the Cerebellum, Nu. Accumbens, Sub-Thalamus, Thalamus, Habenula and Red Nucleus.


  • First to develop a real-time 12,400 voxel swLORETA BrainSurfer
  • First to develop swLORETA Z score Cross-Frequency Neurofeedback